Repository

vPDF

Introduction

From wikipedia:

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed by Adobe in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems. Based on the PostScript language, each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, vector graphics, raster images and other information needed to display it. PDF was standardized as ISO 32000 in 2008, and no longer requires any royalties for its implementation.

PDF is a commonly used file format, but producing a PDF file is not a simple task.

This module was created to simplify PDF file creation using the V programming language .

vPDF is structured in two layers, low and high.

Low level layer

At the lower level, it is possible to create a PDF and write directly to it. This layer is intended for users that are familiar with the PDF format, and wish to create files with as little overhead as possible. You will, however, have to keep track of all the details yourself.

High level layer

At the higher level, there are various functions which simplify creating a PDF, and no knowledge of the PDF format is required to use them.

Installation

v install pdf

QuickStart

Let's start with a reasonably simple example: creating a PDF with only one page and with a simple string on it. For this example we will use the high level layer of vPDF :

Complete source (example 06)

import pdf
import os

fn main() {
    mut doc := pdf.Pdf{}
    doc.init()

    page_n := doc.create_page(pdf.Page_params{
        format: 'A4'
        gen_content_obj: true
        compress: false
    })
    mut page := &doc.page_list[page_n]
    page.user_unit = pdf.mm_unit

    mut fnt_params := pdf.Text_params{
        font_size: 22.0
        font_name: 'Helvetica'
        s_color: pdf.RGB{
            r: 0
            g: 0
            b: 0
        }
        f_color: pdf.RGB{
            r: 0
            g: 0
            b: 0
        }
    }

    // Declare the base (Type1 font) we want use
    if !doc.use_base_font(fnt_params.font_name) {
        eprintln('ERROR: Font $fnt_params.font_name not available!')
        return
    }

    // write the string
    page.push_content(page.draw_base_text('My first string.', 10, 10, fnt_params))

    // render the PDF
    txt := doc.render()!

    // write it to a file
    os.write_file_array('example06.pdf', txt)!
}

Now we'll break down the code:

PDF creation

First we need to create a PDF and initialize the necessary structures:

mut doc := pdf.Pdf{}
doc.init()

Page format and creation

Once we have the PDF structure, we need to create the page or pages. The page can have several parameters such as: dimensions, a flag that indicates if we want vPDF to automatically create the objects or we want do it manually, etc.

For this example we use the simplest configuration possible. We want to create an A4 page (210x297 mm), we want vPDF to handle object creation and tracking for us, and we do not want to compress the output:

page_n := doc.create_page(pdf.Page_params{
    format: 'A4'
    gen_content_obj: true
    compress: false
})

When the page is created, the create_page routine returns the index of the page in the vPDF page array.

To modify the page, we need to set millimeters as the working unit size for the page:

mut page := &doc.page_list[page_n] // get the page struct
page.user_unit = pdf.mm_unit       // set millimeters for all operations

Font selection and use

To write a simple string we need to tell the page which font we want to use, and its properties.

First we create a Text_params struct that contains all the information vPDF needs to instantiate and use a font:

We want a 22pt Helvetica font, and we set the font (stroke) color and fill color:

mut fnt_params := pdf.Text_params{
    font_size    : 22.0
    font_name    : "Helvetica"
    s_color : {r:0,g:0,b:0}
    f_color : {r:0,g:0,b:0}
}

At present, vPDF only supports Type1 fonts. The fonts available in this module are: ['Courier-Bold', 'Courier-BoldOblique', 'Courier-Oblique', 'Courier', 'Helvetica-Bold', 'Helvetica-BoldOblique', 'Helvetica-Oblique', 'Helvetica', 'Symbol', 'Times-Bold', 'Times-BoldItalic', 'Times-Italic', 'Times-Roman', 'ZapfDingbats']

Then tell vPDF the font we want use in the PDF file:

doc.use_base_font(fnt_params.font_name)

Write a string

A PDF page is written in FIFO order, like a queue. Using the high level layer we don't need to care about creation of the objects or their indexing.

To write a string at 10 mm from the left border and 10 mm from the top border of the page we only need to do:

page.push_content(
    page.draw_base_text("My first string.", 10, 10, fnt_params)
)

Render the PDF

At this point our example PDF is complete, so tell vPDF to render the result. The rendering function returns a strings.Builder :

txt := doc.render()

Save the file

With the returned strings.builder , we can do whatever we want - save the PDF to disk, return it as a HTTP response, or whatever else is needed.

In this quickstart we will write the PDF file to disk:

os.write_file_array('example06.pdf', txt.buf)

Resulting PDF

Since we chose not to compress the PDF, it can be opened in a simple text editor so we can read its raw form Note that you would normally open the file with a PDF reader - this is for illustrative purposes only. The contents of the PDF file as written by this example should be:

%PDF-1.4
1 0 obj
<< /Type /Catalog /Pages  2 0 R  >>
endobj

2 0 obj
<< /Type /Pages  /Kids[ 3 0 R  ]  /Count 1  >>
endobj

3 0 obj
<< /Type /Page /Parent 2 0 R /MediaBox  [ 0 0 595.274 841.888 ] /CropBox   [ 0 0 595.274 841.888 ] /Resources  <<  /ProcSet  [/PDF/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI/Text]  /Font  <<  /F0  5 0 R  >>  >>  /Contents  4 0 R  >>
endobj

4 0 obj
<< /Length 77 >>
stream

BT
/F0 22 Tf
0 0 0 RG 0 0 0 rg
28.3464 813.542 Td
(My first string.) Tj
ET

endstream
endobj

5 0 obj
<< /Name /F0 /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /BaseFont /Helvetica /Encoding /MacRomanEncoding  >>
endobj

xref
0 1
0000000000 65535 f
1 1
0000000009 00000 n
2 1
0000000061 00000 n
3 1
0000000124 00000 n
4 1
0000000351 00000 n
5 1
0000000479 00000 n
trailer
<</Size 6/Root 1 0 R>>
startxref
589
%%EOF

Add a JPEG image

Now we can add an image to the page, it can be simply done adding the following lines just before the rendering operation:

// read a jpeg image from the disk
jpeg_data := os.read_bytes("data/v.jpg") or { panic(err) }
jpeg_id := doc.add_jpeg_resource(jpeg_data)
// tell the page we want use a this jpeg in the page
page.use_jpeg(jpeg_id)

// get width and height in pixel of the jpeg image
_, w, h := pdf.get_jpeg_info(jpeg_data)
h_scale := h / w

page.push_content(
page.draw_jpeg(jpeg_id, {x:10, y:60, w:30, h:30 * h_scale})
)

First we need to load in memory the image, this task is achieved with: os.read_bytes("data/v.jpg")

Now we must add the jpeg to the resources of the PDF: doc.add_jpeg_resource(jpeg_data) that return an id that we will use to identify the jpeg as PDF resource.

Note: All the resources of a PDF file like images, fonts etc must be loaded and stored inside the PDF itself as PDF objects.

The vPDF module take care about the creation of the objects and their indexing.

Now we must use the jpeg, this usage belong to the page and we must tell to the page that we want use a specific image, we do this with: page.use_jpeg(jpeg_id)

Before draw the image we can collect some info on it using: _, w, h := pdf.get_jpeg_info(jpeg_data) in this case we need only the width and the height of the jpeg.

Now we can draw our jpeg in the pdf using:

page.push_content(
    page.draw_jpeg(jpeg_id, {x:10, y:60, w:30, h:30 * h_scale})
)

where we specify the jpeg_id returned by the add_jpeg_resource call and a Box with the position and dimension where we want the jpeg.

In this case we will draw the jpeg at 10 mm from the left border and 60 mm from the top border with a width of 30mm and a height proportional to the source.

Complete source (example 07)

import pdf
import os

fn main() {
    mut doc := pdf.Pdf{}
    doc.init()

    page_n := doc.create_page(pdf.Page_params{
        format: 'A4'
        gen_content_obj: true
        compress: false
    })
    mut page := &doc.page_list[page_n]
    page.user_unit = pdf.mm_unit

    mut fnt_params := pdf.Text_params{
        font_size: 22.0
        font_name: 'Helvetica'
        s_color: pdf.RGB{
            r: 0
            g: 0
            b: 0
        }
        f_color: pdf.RGB{
            r: 0
            g: 0
            b: 0
        }
    }

    // Declare the base (Type1 font) we want use
    if !doc.use_base_font(fnt_params.font_name) {
        eprintln('ERROR: Font $fnt_params.font_name not available!')
        return
    }

    // write the string
    page.push_content(page.draw_base_text('My first string.', 10, 10, fnt_params))

    // read a jpeg image from the disk
    jpeg_data := os.read_bytes('data/v.jpg') or { panic(err) }
    jpeg_id := doc.add_jpeg_resource(jpeg_data)
    // tell the page we want use a this jpeg in the page
    page.use_jpeg(jpeg_id)

    // get width and height in pixel of the jpeg image
    _, w, h := pdf.get_jpeg_info(jpeg_data)
    h_scale := h / w

    page.push_content(page.draw_jpeg(jpeg_id, pdf.Box{
        x: 10
        y: 60
        w: 30
        h: 30 * h_scale
    }))

    // render the PDF
    txt := doc.render()!

    // write it to a file
    os.write_file_array('example07.pdf', txt)!
}

Text Box

A text box is a page's box where the text is fitted.

It is an utility function that help write indented text.

As input you need :

  • the source text
  • a Box with the coordinates and dimensions of the container box
  • a Text_params structure, the possible text_align values are: left, center, right, justify
source_txt := "text to write"
text_bx   := pdf.Box{x:10, y:10, w:40, h:60}
nt_params  := pdf.Text_params{
        font_size    : 22.0
        font_name    : "Helvetica"
        text_align   : .left
}
res, left_over_txt, bottom_y  = page.text_box(source_txt, text_bx, fnt_params)

As output you will obtain:

  • res is true if all the source_txt lay inside the text_bx otherwise false.
  • left_over_txt is the text that was not possible to fit inside text_bx
  • bottom_y is the bottom y coordinate where the text was written by text_box function.

You can use the left_over_txt as input for other text_box function like in the example 03 or example 05.

Complete source (example 03)

import pdf
import os

fn main() {
    mut doc := pdf.Pdf{}
    doc.init()

    page_n := doc.create_page(pdf.Page_params{
        format: 'A4'
        gen_content_obj: true
        compress: true
    })
    mut page := &doc.page_list[page_n]
    page.user_unit = pdf.mm_unit

    mut fnt_params := pdf.Text_params{
        font_size: 22.0
        font_name: 'Helvetica'
        render_mode: -1
        word_spacing: -1
        s_color: pdf.RGB{
            r: 0
            g: 0
            b: 0
        }
        f_color: pdf.RGB{
            r: 0
            g: 0
            b: 0
        }
    }

    // Declare the base (Type1 font) we want use
    if !doc.use_base_font(fnt_params.font_name) {
        eprintln('ERROR: Font $fnt_params.font_name not available!')
        return
    }

    //----- test box text -----
    fnt_params.word_spacing = 0
    fnt_params.font_size = 12

    mut my_str := "Quicksort (sometimes called partition-exchange sort) is an efficient sorting algorithm.
    Developed by British computer scientist Tony Hoare in 1959 and published in 1961, it is still a commonly used algorithm for sorting. When implemented well, it can be about two or three times faster than its main competitors, merge sort and heapsort.
    Quicksort is a divide-and-conquer algorithm. It works by selecting a 'pivot' element from the array and partitioning the other elements into two sub-arrays, according to whether they are less than or greater than the pivot. The sub-arrays are then sorted recursively. This can be done in-place, requiring small additional amounts of memory to perform the sorting.
    Quicksort is a comparison sort, meaning that it can sort items of any type for which a 'less-than' relation (formally, a total order) is defined. Efficient implementations of Quicksort are not a stable sort, meaning that the relative order of equal sort items is not preserved.
    Mathematical analysis of quicksort shows that, on average, the algorithm takes O[n log n] comparisons to sort n items. In the worst case, it makes O[n2] comparisons, though this behavior is rare.
    Best solutions can be available!
    Soon or later they will be available."

    my_str = my_str + my_str
    my_str = my_str + my_str

    //----- Text Area -----
    tb := pdf.Box{
        x: page.media_box.x / page.user_unit + 10
        y: 20
        w: page.media_box.w / page.user_unit - 20
        h: page.media_box.h / page.user_unit - 20
    }

    // justify align
    fnt_params.text_align = .justify
    mut tmp_txt := my_str
    mut tmp_res := false
    mut lo_txt := ' '

    // set two columns
    boxes := [
        pdf.Box{
            x: tb.x
            y: tb.y
            w: tb.w / 2 - 10
            h: tb.h - 20
        },
        pdf.Box{
            x: tb.x + tb.w / 2 + 5
            y: tb.y
            w: tb.w / 2 - 10
            h: tb.h - 20
        },
    ]

    for bx in boxes {
        if lo_txt.len > 0 {
            tmp_res, lo_txt, _ = page.text_box(tmp_txt, bx, fnt_params)
            if tmp_res {
                break
            }
            tmp_txt = lo_txt
            // println("leftover: [${lo_txt}]")
        }
    }
    // println("res: ${tmp_res} left_over: [${lo_txt}]")

    // render the PDF
    txt := doc.render()!

    // write it to a file
    os.write_file_array('example03.pdf', txt)!
}

About

0
14352
last May 7

Author

medvednikov